Requirement to Energy meters started at ending of 1800.  It was needed to install billing system for lighting systems.  Thomas With contributions of scientists like Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse and Thomas Duncan, First energy meter’s studies were started. At 1872, we are sure that no body imagine to today's high technology energy meters when the first energy meter was developed by Samuel Gardiner. Samuel Gardiner’s developed energy meter was used on DC network. Later on, the first AC energy meter was created by J.B. Fuller and foundation of today’s high tech energy meters was laid. This energy meter was working in logic as a simple clock   with magnetized two coil by AC network.

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Generally, the measured networks by energy meters were created with arc lamps. Today, Electric – electronic instruments disturb to stability of network and increase to electrical distortion level. New energy meters are designed according to these problems.
The technologic development level was increasing with new inventions of scientists like Galile Ferraris and Nikola Tesla. The AC-DC network contention which is between Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla would determine the direction of the energy meters. At 1920’s, technologic studies about meter’s connection protection and polyphase measurement increased. At 30’s, the usage of energy meters were made with protective equipment’s like fuse and switches. In the ongoing years, energy meter structure was become today’s condition according network needs and additional requirements.  Now, new energy meters are produced with a lot of technologic methods like Rogowski, hall effect (current measurement), resistive and differential (voltage measurement). We are too much further from two coil measurement way.

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Present day new meter structures   have a lot of features like routine multitariff energy measurement (Wh, Varh, etc..) , network parameter measurement  (V, I, Cosⱷ, etc..), power quality parameter measurement (Harmonics, interrupts, etc…) and prepayment etc...
Energy meters are ready to use in AMR systems with a lot of wired and wireless communication ways.  These meters have a lot of sensors for fraud detection, and meters can record events in their memory. Different measurement methods like Double Rogowski coil provides protection against external magnetic effects. Modular energy meters can be customized according to different network needs.

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Samuel Gardiner and J.B. Fuller’s first R&D works   is going to go further with new technologic inventions.  We will see…


[1] Tom LAWTON History of Electric Metering
[2] Texas Instrument “Differential Signal Conditioning Circuit for Current and Voltage Measurement”

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