# LV Power Factor Correction - Capacitor & Filter Banks

Aktif low voltage capacitor banks are
designed, manufactured and adapted to
the specific needs of each client. There
are thousands of references around
the world. It has modular and compact
design optimized for easy future
expansion of the system. It is suitable
for indoor and outdoor installations.
It is a packaged factory assembled
reactive compensation system with
modular switched capacitor steps,
which will automatically compensate
an individual load or the network to
maintain a preset level of power factor.

Power Factor Correction is the subject of Power Quality. Power Quality have two aims that improvement of power
quality and power factor correction.

Power Factor Correction is improvement of power factor to able closest value to 1. AC systems have reactive
current,
active current and apparent current. These currents cause to create active power, reactive power and apparent
power.
Apparent power is vector sum of active power and reactive power.

Active Power (P) , the power needed for useful work, expressed in Watt. IR (Active Currrent), in phase with the
supply voltage, is directly related to the output and therefore to the part of electric energy converted into
energy
of different types: mechanical energy, light energy, thermal energy.

Reactive Power (Q) , which does not do any useful work, expressed in VAr. The reactive component IQ (Reactive
Current), in quadrature to the voltage,is used to generate the flow necessary for the conversion of powers
through
the electric or magnetic field and it is index of the transfer of energy between supply and load. Without this,
there could be no net transfer of power, for example, thanks to the magnetic coupling in the core of a
transformer
or in the air gap of a motor.

Apparent Power (S) , the vector sum of active and reactive power, expressed in VA. In an electrical installation,
it
is necessary to generate and transmit, in addition to the active power P, a certain reactive power Q, which is
essential for the conversion of the electrical energy but is not available to the load because exchanged with
the
network.

## Reactive Power

Reactive power consist of Inductive power and Capacitive power as shown as below graph. Capacitive power and
inductive power are have contra angles. Inductive power is necessary for generate the flow necessary for the
conversion of powers through the electric or magnetic field.

## Power Factor

Power factor is cos ϕ = cos (active power)/(apparent power) , so
if
we reduce reactive power, apparent power going to reduce and cos ϕ going up to near of 1. Electrial motors needs
little amount of inductive power for magnetic field, so it is undesirable that exact cos ϕ=1. Cos ϕ value is
change
between 1 with -1. If reactive power is capacitive reactive power, cos ϕ going to be -1 < cos ϕ < 0. If
reactive power is inductive reactive power, cos ϕ going to be 0 < cos ϕ < 1.

### Calculatıon Of Power Factor Need

QC = Q1 – Q2 = P . (tg ϕ1 - tg ϕ2), main formula for calculate compensation systems power and power factor.

For example, local compensation for motor 400kW and default cos ϕ1 = 0,8 . how can be done cos ϕ2 = 0,95 ?

cos ϕ1 = 0,8 🡢 tg ϕ1 = 0,748

cos ϕ2 = 0,95 🡢 tg ϕ2 = 0,328

Qc = 400.(0,748 – 0,328) = 168 kVAr capacitive load must be added to network to achieve cos ϕ = 0,95.

As seen as power factor between 0 < cos < 1. So we can understand that system has inductive reactive
power,
we need to add capacitor unit to decrease reactive power value.

**Advantages Of Power Factor Correctıon**

In is the vector sum of IR and IQ. When power factor correction is done IQ is decrease to the minimum value. In
this
way In is going to be decreased to minimum amount.

For example, examine current demand decrease for motor power is 400kW and at first power factor, cos ϕ1 = 0,8
after
the power factor correction, cos ϕ2 = 0,95. (Un=400V)

Calculated values prove us power factor correction provide current flow in transmission lines, distribution
lines
and transformers load are decrease sharply. Decrease of current flow provide us that cable sizes are decrease
and
transformers efficiencies are rises. This conclusion show us power factor correction reduce investment costs of
facilities, distiribution lines, transmission lines and equipment maintenance costs becuse of less current
loads.

Decrease of apparent current provide that equipment sizes needs are be less area.

Power factor correction have another vital effect is preventing phase shifting. Capacitive current forward ϕ
degree
from voltage, inductive current is ϕ degree behind of voltage. When the power factor correction is done ϕ i
going to
be minimum value. When the power factor correction is done ϕ angle is going to be minimum value. Sinus waveforms
of
current and voltage are going to be have same angle.

## Types Of Power Factor Correctıon

There are various methods to do power factor correction applications. System types are fixed compensation system,
manually controlled compensation system and automatic compensation system.

Fixed compensation systems can compensate only designed value. These systems have switch on/off modes. When they
switched on they compensate can only designed value. Manually controlled compensation systems have steps to
compensate different values of reactive power comsumption.

These steps can control manually. Automatic compensation systems have steps to compensate different values of
reactive power consumption. These systems have automatic controlled power factor correction relay. Relay can
measure
the consumption of reactive power help of information of current transformers. Then control steps to make ideal
compensation to systems.

### Applıcatıon types of power factor correctıon

Power factor correction have three different application methods. These methods are distributed power factor
correction, group power factor correction and centralized power factor correction.

Distributed power factor correction, is achieved by connecting a capacitor bank properly sized directly to the
terminals of the load which demands reactive power. The installation is simple and inexpensive.

Group power factor correction, is achieved by connecting a capacitor bank properly sized directly to the shared
terminal of the group of load that have similar work charasteristic which demands reactive power.

Centralized power factor correction, for installations with many loads, it is evident that the

solution of distributed power factor correction . Therefore the use of one compensation system only located at
the
origin of the installation allows a remarkable reduction of the total power of the installed capacitors.

**what is power factor correction?**

Power factor correction is a product used to maintain the required level of the previously designed power factors and to correct them automatically. Power factor corrections produced by the Aktif group are designed according to the needs of each user and made ready for use.

**What is power factor correction capacitors?**

Power factor correction capacitors are mostly used in maintenance periods of power factors. It is a device used by many business owners with its serious current power.

**how to connect the power factor correction capacitor?**

Power factor capacitors, which are very simple to use, vary according to the factors designed by users. It should also be noted that easily activated power factors have a serious current level.

**How to size power factor correction?**

Aktif Group does not hesitate to run to the help of its customers in this regard. Power factors, on average of 2 meters, can be placed in all areas of the workplace.